# Conical Springs

### Parameters of conical compression springs ### Physical parameters of Conical Springs

1. d (wire diameter): This parameter describes the diameter of wire used as material for spring.
2. S (shaft): This parameter describes the maximum diameter of spring shaft in industrial applications. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
3. De (Larger External Diameter): External diameter at large end of the spring. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
4. Ds (Smaller External Diameter): External diameter at small end of the spring. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
5. H (hole): This is the minimum diameter of the hole in which spring can work. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
6. Ln (Block): Maximal length of a spring after total blocking. For most conical springs this value equals double wire diameter. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
7. L0 (free length): Free length of compression springs is measured in its uncompressed state after previous one time blocking. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)2%(indicative).
8. R (spring rate): This parameter determines spring's resistance, while it is working. It is measured in 1 DaN/mm = 10 N/mm. Tolerance for this parameter is (+-)15%(indicative).
9. L1 & F1 (length at force F): Force F1 at length L1 can be calculated from equation : F1 = (L0-L1) * R. Equation derrived from previous for calculating L1 : L1 = L0 - F1/R.

### Materials of Conical Springs

I (Inox steel): Inox 18/8 mark Z10 CN 18.09.